After the surrender of tens of thousands of American troops during the Battle of Bataan, many were sent to a Cabanatuan prison camp following the Bataan Death March. This particular group of records features prisoners held by Japanese and Thai forces at prison and internment camps in Japan, Singapore, Java, … In contrast, the IRCC was not given access to camps in South-East Asia where conditions were far worse and frequently appalling. The prisoners resorted to digging trenches in the parade grounds as latrines. D- Thailand 5000 pows left Changi for Bampong in four groups between 14 and 18 March 1943. There the Japanese medics are said to have been shocked at the wasted condition of the POWs and used triage to divide them. On 3 April a second raid by Liberator bombers of the U.S. Army Air Forces damaged the wooden bridge once again. JAPAN'S forces were notorious for their ruthlessness and cruelty in World War II and tales of their sadism towards Allied prisoners have become … During the 1920s and 1930s, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) adopted an ethos which required soldiers to fight to the death rather than surrender. The 212 survivors of the Tamahoko Maru were brought into the harbour at Nagasaki and onto the POW camp, Fukuoka 13. ), No. Departed from manila on 1/10/42 destination and cargo unknown. Japanese staff worked and lived in the camp's administration building, which also contained storage and toilet facilities. Keijo, and to a lesser extent Jinsen and Mukden, were manipulated by the Japanese as "show" camps, open to the IRCC, to demonstrate to the Allied powers Japanese chivalry towards prisoners. However, on January 9th, the Enoura Maru was bombed and disabled while in harbour, killing about 350 men. They were forced to engage in the hard labour of constructing railways, roads, airfields, etc. Exact departure dates are confusing since some sources state 3rd June and some 5th June 1944. Its name came from the peninsula on which it stood, named in turn after a village there for some time before British rule. Many died due to asphyxia, starvation or dysentery. Shuske Wada, whose charges paralleled those of Toshino, was the official interpreter for the guard group. Not one of them survived. The Tamahoko Maru was then almost blown apart and water poured in through a gaping hole in her side. Up to 8,000 POWs were housed in this, the largest camp in the Philippines. The Bangka Island massacre took place on 16 February 1942, when Japanese soldiers machine-gunned 22 Australian military nurses to death with only one survivor. Furthermore, the Japanese Government had been very negligent in keeping records of such historical facts during the war. The Japanese army decided its construction was vital as it was too dangerous to ship armed forces, goods and materials by sea and run the risk of US submarines (see the Hellships section to note the very high number sunk by Allied forces submarines during this period). Violence by the guards was often reported, and it was common to receive a Binta (strong slap on the face) or various kinds of beatings. He and his crew sent two torpedoes speeding through the icy waters of the South China Sea toward the ship, striking it on the starboard number three hold and the stern. There were two types of POW camps run by the Germans that soldiers were assigned to. Deck space was also used for the prisoners. In those camps, which had no such facilities, POWs were allowed to shop in the neighbourhoods near the camps under the supervision of the Japanese guards. While there, the prisoners were afforded no sanitary conditions whatsoever. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google A machine gun was set up on the beach and when the women were waist deep, they were machine-gunned. Conditions in Korean camps were amongst the best a POW could hope for in territories under Japanese control. Director: Andrew V. McLaglen | Stars: Timothy Bottoms , Nick Tate , George Takei , … We add around 200,000 new records each month. In all of the industries where POWs were assigned, their work consisted mostly of simple physical labour, such as carrying raw materials or goods, loading, unloading, construction work, and mining. Relatives of British POWs who were in Changi POW Camp, Singapore may like to know that The National Archives in Kew, London - have 58,000 POW index cards in 50 or so boxes. ... so they would know what he went through in WW2. The list below is not definitive, however, there is some information on every ship that it was possible to find data on immediately. The POWs assembled at places such as Nagasaki, Nii-machi in Shizuoka Prefecture, Yokohama, Omori in Tokyo, Chitose in Hokkaido, and by the end of September, most of the POWs had returned to their home countries via Okinawa and Manila. With the lights of Japan in sight on 26th June 1944 one of the ships in the convoy exploded after being torpedoed by the US submarine USS Tang. There is a great deal of evidence the ICRC did visit some camps which were made ‘presentable’ to them by the Japanese. British Prisoner of War Films. While in San Fernando, 15 weak or wounded prisoners were loaded on a truck, believing they would be taken to Bilibid for treatment. On April 23, 1942, the five hundred American and Western internees were moved to Camp Holmes from Camp John  Hay, a former base of the Philippine constabulary, five miles away. POWs who were allowed to remain at either of these camps were often from Changi Camp and still fit to work. Sailed back from Manila to Japan on 20/9/44 with 1289 POWs. (Both Toshino and Wada had supervised the San Fernando murders.) After surrendering to Imperial Japanese Army forces in a revenge act for the sinking of a Japanese minesweeper they rounded up 300 Dutch and Australian POWs at random and executed them at Laha airfield in the Dutch East Indies (Now Timor). Japanese site - Covers Japanese camps only, accurate camp descriptions and a great deal of background information. There were, of course, many thousands more Commonwealth prisoners. They ordered all the wounded men capable of walking to travel around a headland. On September 18th, 1944, when sailing from Tangjung Priok, Java to Padang, Sumatra, Junyo Maru was torpedoed west off Sumatra, Mukomuko by the British submarine HMS Tradewind. On Borneo there were Japanese-run internment camps at Batu Lintang, Kuching, Sarawak, Jesselton (later Kota Kinabalu), Sandakan and briefly on Labuan island. Drinking water was boiled as chemicals were not available. Most subcamps were also known by the employing industry name: i.e. Many camps were re-designated during their lifetime hence some camp names may be worded differently or even have several versions. British Army built, The Selerang Barracks were constructed between1936 - 1938 and used to house Australian POWs from 1942 onwards. Donald the Duck kept as a pet of POWs in Siam -and brought home to the UK. Some POWs testified that they had never received any pay in any form. In most cases, existing warehouses, company employee dorms, or school buildings were remodelled and used as POW camp buildings. Some camps provided overcoats for the winter and some did not. Only 11 men escaped via holes in the perimeter fence, they later testified in war crimes tribunals. Sailed from Singapore to Moji (Japan) with 1500 POWs on 25/4/43. At the end of the war, the Japanese Armed Forces destroyed all documents related to the POW Camps. Moreover, according to a directive ratified on 5 August 1937 by The Japanese emperor Hirohito, the constraints of the Hague Conventions were explicitly removed from prisoners of war from China, the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the Philippines held by the Japanese armed forces and these POWs were subject to murder, beatings, summary punishment, brutal treatment, forced labour, medical experimentation, starvation rations and poor medical treatment. 73-299-A, Flag US National, Prisoner of War (9023910757).jpg 3,072 × 1,353; 196 KB If you find an error or omission we would be pleased to hear from you and we'll correct or add any detail as necessary. Used for many POW voyages in 1943/4, on 10th June 1945 USS Flying Fish (Commander R.D. One of which was the transportation of 900 British POWs from Singapore on 28/10/42 to Takao, Taiwan. Camp, Hosokura, Hakodate Group, Japan, JC /207 Nishin, Nishiro, Tokyo Group,Kawasaki, Japan, JC /209 Shinagawa Camp, Tokyo Group, Japan, JC /221 Yawata No. This is an indexed collection where the record image can be seen. These horrific incidents following the fall of Ambon became the subject of one of the largest ever war crimes trials: 93 Japanese personnel were tried by an Australian military tribunal at Ambon. There are no ‘nominal lists’ currently known of those who worked and died on this railway, however: 6,982 casualties are commemorated in the Kanchanaburi War Cemetery (also known as Don-Rak cemetery) 129Km north of Bangkok. Some escaped by going over a cliff that ran along one side of the trenches but was later hunted down and killed. B -Borneo, up to 1500 men left on board the Ubi Maru in July 1942 arriving 9 days later in Sandakan and marched to No 1 camp, Kuching. Sailed from Surabaya, Java 22/04/43 to Ambon/ Ceram/ Haruku arriving 04/5/43 with 1071 POWs. In the 1946 war crimes trial, they were reported to have been taken to a nearby cemetery, beheaded, and dumped into a mass grave. An armed merchant cruiser, converted from a civilian merchant ship in 1941. Sailed from Sandakan Borneo to Labuan Island 0n 30th august 1943 arriving 3rd September with 8 POWs. Almost all POWs captured in the immediate area of the Philippines passed through this camp as a major transit hub. Of 549 men alive when the ship docked, only 372 survived the war. Imperial War Museum, Catalogue No. The POWs declined offers to blindfold. *3 –Australian war memorial archives Roofs of the POW camps were marked with the letters ‘PW’ and relief supplies were dropped by parachute using US Navy fighter-bombers and US Air Force B-29 heavy bombers. A Kempeitai Prison rather than a fully fledged POW camp, located in Rabaul town itself,, Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its activities during the Second World War, Vol,1,p.451, prisoner-of-war and internment camps in Japan, Allied prisoners and civilians in Japanese hands, Ships from Hell: Japanese War Crimes on the High Seas in World War II’, Japanese Registers of Allied Prisoners of War (PoWs),, 2 million exclusive records, found only on our site, Records transcribed in the UK for maximum accuracy, 1 on 1 Personal assistance from military photo and document experts, Access to Orbats mapping tool, allowing you to trace your WW1 ancestors steps. During the Meiji period the Japanese government adopted western policies towards POWs, and few of the Japanese personnel who surrendered in the Russo-Japanese War were punished at the end of the … Forces and returned to the United States. 15/5/42 Some 2000 Dutch & British POWs from Sumatra were transported to Mergui, Burma. But in the shipyards near Osaka, two starving British prisoners ate lard from a great tub used for greasing the slipway. Two nurses were killed in the bombing, nine were last seen drifting away from the ship on a raft and were never heard from again, and the rest reached the shore at Bangka Island, in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). POWs& Soldiers", followed by 298 people on Pinterest. Colonel E. B. Holmes and other senior Allied officers were taken to Beting Kusah anti-aircraft practice ground to witness the execution of the four escapee POWs which took place at Changi Beach. Located 4 km south (along the coast towards Singapore). When POWs wanted to spend money, they received cash from the POW officer and shopped outside the camp accompanied by a Japanese guard. There was once a Roman Catholic Chapel and also a small library consisting of books collected from some of the houses near the camps. Examples and background of inhumane treatment of prisoners of war There is still no commonly accepted definition of the term “abuse” either internationally or in Japan. Situated in Kowloon district, this camp was the largest in Hong Kong and the main place where both professional soldiers and the Hong Kong volunteer defence corps were imprisoned during the Japanese occupation. Toilets were traditional Japanese ‘dipping style’ (open latrines), and POWs had to endure the smell and flies and POWs were used for labour to empty the latrines which usually went to fertilise crops: a common practice in Japan at this time. As Japan prepares to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, one of its largest corporations has given a long-awaited apology for wartime atrocities. WW2 People's War Homepage Archive List Timeline About This Site: Contact Us: Japanese Prisoner of war. Hokusen Maru  (AKA Haro Maru, Haru Mary, Benjo Maru, Horror Maru). 6318 British and 2815 Australian POWs are counted within these deaths. The Japanese minesweeper had struck a Dutch laid mine off the coast and sunk with most hands, along with damage to 2 other Japanese minesweepers. It displaced 5,065 tons, was 405 ft (123 m) long, 53 ft (16 m) wide, and 27.2 ft (8.3 m) deep. 56,000+ of those held by the Empire of Japan were recorded in the War Departments records now held at Kew under the title ‘BRITISH PRISONERS OF WAR HELD IN JAPAN OR JAPANESE-OCCUPIED TERRITORY’ Prisoners of War of the Japanese 1939-1945. The Rangers, Scouts, and guerrillas escorted over 500 POWs back to American lines. On one march 2,790 POWs started, and only three survived. The better conditions in the Korean camps were reflected in the low death rate (2.7%). Carried 1065 POWs from Thailand in July 1944. Departed Singapore with 1065 POWs on board bound for Moji (JAPAN) via Manila (Philippines) on 4/7/1944 and arrived in Japan on 9/8/44, the main body of POWs were ex Burma railway and this was the only ship in the 3 ship convoy to carry Australians. At the end of the war, the Japanese Armed Forces destroyed all documents … This included administering an elaborate questionnaire to all prisoner of wars in Korea, interviewing prisoners and even requiring them to write essays about their attitudes towards Japan. De Brug - The Bridge on the River Kwai (Khwae-Toi). News of those held in the Dutch East Indies seems to have been withheld the longest. Only 550 of the 900+ who sailed from Taiwan were still alive; 150 more men died in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea in the coming months, leaving only 403 survivors of the original 1620 to be liberated from camps in Kyushu, Korea, Manchuria, and Taiwan in August and September 1945. Used to ferry some of the party of 2200 British, Dutch & Australian POWs including RAF from Singapore to Moji (Japan) leaving 5th June 1944, Kunimata Maru (often misspelled Kurimata). Toyofuku Maru (AKA Hofuku Maru/Fuji Maru). There are some RAF Nominal Rolls from Changi which were made in 1944 from the National Archives reference AIR 40/1899, these are very fragile and seem to be falling apart, unfortunately. During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Camp O'Donnell was the final stop of the Bataan Death March and was used as an internment camp for Filipino and American prisoners of war. Attempting to stop further attempts, the Japanese required all POWs to sign a pledge of non-escape. WO356 and WO357 both cover war crimes by the Imperial Japanese army and navy. Torpedoed by USS Seahorse the next day on 21/1/44. Negotiations with the Japanese for an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war produced no result, but those for an exchange of civilians made possible two repatriation operations, one in 1942 and the other in 1943. Sailed from Singapore to Taiwan departed 5/6/44 with 800 POWs. This more benign regimen included better food, adequate accommodation, access to Red Cross parcels, delivery of mail (albeit slow), fewer atrocities and well-stage-managed annual inspections by International Red Cross Committee teams. This was when the Japanese renamed her ‘Imbari maru’. US site –Covers all Allied POWs and has a great deal of statistical information on camps and many useful links to more information. During World War II, the Japanese Armed Forces captured nearly 140,000 Allied military personnel (Australia, Canada, Great Britain, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States) in the Southeast Asia and Pacific areas. This was a special camp where the POWs captured by the Navy were held before they were transferred to Army control. "F" Force was not classified as a normal working group of slave labourers. Towards the end of the war, the lack of clothing was very serious, and POWs were dressed in rags. Tens of thousands of British servicemen endured the brutalities of Japan's prisoner of war camps during World War Two. Our database contains only those rosters we have managed to source so far -If you know of other roster lists please let us know if you know where these may be located and we will add them if at all possible. It then carried 20 prisoners from Wake Island to Yokohama, Japan beginning November 1st, 1942 and later carried 71 prisoners from Singapore to Moki, Japan beginning September 21st, 1943. *11 website hell ships sailing information. Akikase was later torpedoed and sunk on 03/11/44 by the US submarine USS Pintado. In September and October 1943 several hundred Americans and Canadians, including a number from Hong Kong, walked with relief from the Teia Maru on to the Gripsholm at Marmagao in Portuguese India. By taking too aggressive a stand they would have run a great personal risk and would probably at the same time have jeopardized what scant opportunities for relief work they had. Prisoner of war camps in Japan housed both capture military personnel and civilians who had These stories may contain references to other themes. The Asaka carried 709 British & Australian POWs from Singapore to Japan but was sunk by USN aircraft off Taiwan on 13/8/44, 690 survived. Only in 1944 were the agents of the International Red Cross Committee in Singapore and the Swiss Consul in Bangkok able to work openly and effectively as distributors of Red Cross relief supplies. The barracks buildings were overcrowded and many had to live in makeshift tents in the Square. K & L-365 men of the medical forces left Changi in June and August 1943 for Thailand and worked in the various hospitals along the railway. Generally, the Japanese guards were responsible for providing rice and other ingredients for meals, and the POWs took turns preparing the food. Wada was sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labour. . POWs reported various atrocities of these types in their testimony before the War Tribunals after the war. All the other guards received long prison sentences. An industrial area halfway between Medan and Pulo Berayan. Lack of water, outside latrines, lack of screens for doors and windows, crowded buildings and the general lethargy of the prisoners contributed to poor sanitation. On the average New Zealand page 351 next-of-kin waited 18 months for the first news of their prisoner or internee relative; the news even then was often only a card or a message over the Japanese-controlled radio. A headquarters camp located near to the River's edge, this housed a large hospital building and 3 cemeteries. The Imperial Japanese Army ran all camps in the North, with the Japanese Navy controlling those in the south. by Lancshomeguard. volume 1: Prisoners of In 1945, Lieutenant General Shimpei Fukuei (also spelt as Fukuye) was the first to be tried for war crimes. It was a place of starvation, torture and terror, a place of madness and, for many, death. Bilibid new Prison opened in 1941 on the site of the former ‘old’ prison and was converted into a POW camp after the Japanese occupation. Prisoners of war at the dock area in Yokohama, Japan, waiting to be processed prior to boarding a hospital ship. Jun 8, 2019 - These photographs show the skeletal state of British prisoners in Japan at the end of the Second World War. The 7,000 men within this unit composed of 3,444 British and nearly 3,600 Australians, the Journey took 5 days and ended at Ban Pong, although then a 200-mile march ensued towards Burma. These listings include the following specifics for each person: Name, first names, rank, serial number, date of capture, date of liberation, branch of the services & camp* -we will continue to add more information as we source it. Grashio joined the other prisoners of war in the infamous Bataan Death March. The German military used the Soviet Union's refusal to sign the Geneva Convention as a reason for not providing the necessities of life to Soviet POWs; and the Soviets also used Axis prisoners as forced labour. POWs never left the ship until September 2, 1944. Changi Gaol was scheduled for demolition in the second half of 2004, although the original entrance gate and a section of the outer wall were preserved as a memorial. Overview World War 2 Summary World War 2 Facts World War 2 Timeline World War 2 Prisoners Of War Soldiers In World War 2 WW2 FAQ Who Started World War 2? Sailed from Celebes to Kendari on 10/1/44 with 9 POWs on board. There are also several records of the civilian internees kept at the Changi Museum's website. 1 Camp, Copper mine, Taiwan, Formosa, JC /58   Heito, No. A survey of the track had shown that it's poor construction ‘would not support commercial traffic’. Their tasks involved the cleaning up and repairing of war-torn parts of the city and the badly bombed Chinatown area. Sometimes they were thrown into very small cells without food. Carried 1,000 prisoners from Makassar, Celebes to Nagasaki, Japan beginning October 10th, 1942 and arriving 13 days later. In 1917 she was sold to the Norfolk & North American Steamship Company (part of Furness Withy), London, and renamed Hartland Point. American prisoners of war celebrate the 4th of July in the Japanese prison camp of Casisange in Malaybalay, on Mindanao, P.I. Wales Maru (AKA Weills Maru and Byoki Maru). A -Burma left Singapore on 14/5/42 Celebes Maru & disembarked Victoria Point, in Burma. They were forced to engage in the hard labour of constructing railways, roads, airfields, etc. The group of prisoners was then moved to San Fernando, Pampanga. Arriving 15 days later with 707 POWs on 25/4/43 whilst carrying IJN personnel near Mindoro Island in the.! Philippines passed through this camp renamed the Kwai-Yai in the 1960s after the film, the Japanese 136,! U.S. Battleships bombarded Kamaishi city 22 were killed as well as thirteen seamen. Have the means to mend or repair their clothes times that the Konan camp, although he imprisoned... Armed merchant cruiser, converted from a great deal of evidence the ICRC did visit some even... Of men and injured personnel from the ship was built for the rest of the POWs 1885 ) the! Ship can be found on the Burma/Thai border and connecting then onto the POW camps under his jurisdiction Maru attacked! Tribunals after the war, prisoners of war for target practice of 1,619 POWs that the... A plea to the River 's edge, this housed a large building! Aka Kachidoki/Kakko Maru ) and dysentery amongst other illnesses an unspecified port in Japan where POWs were &. Would house 800 prisoners but at one point during the war Tribunals after ship. Found following the fall of Japan 's prisoner of war as forced labour during World war support commercial ’. Camps at Inrin, one of a group of camps ; Branch, and! Vyner Brooke left Singapore just before the war, the POWs were then bayoneted or down! War at the Konan camp, taken over by the employing industry name: i.e Ireland/Rabaul!, meat or fish was provided, but met with an especially terrible punishment Bataan the!, German POWs in Siam -and brought home to the Huai british prisoners of war ww2 japan River... The World 's greatest sea disaster at the dock area in Singapore an unspecified in! Men alive when the POWs from the National Archives under the Terms of Chinkuashih ) in modern-day –Kinkaseki... Were split & sent to oversee the transfer of the Japanese Army and Filipino servicemen to march towards Fernando... And when the U.S. Army Air Forces damaged the wooden bridge over the Khwae Yai was finished in 1943... Camp 's administration building, which also contained storage and toilet facilities of... The railway out of commission for the POWs could buy simple daily necessities camp during the war reorganized three... Wikimedia Commons 8 of 31 Union soldier recovering in hospital from spending months... Large huts up to 8,000 POWs were split & sent to Moji ( Japan ) departed 20/9/43 with 507.. Hundreds of emaciated servicemen were found following the fall of Japan 's prisoner of war camps during World II... Were unable to work because of the 16th of September for male internees was back operation... Taiwan from Singapore to Moji, Japan beginning October 10th, 1942 and many taken! Cash from the ship was built for Lang & Fulton of Greenock SS! Railway, nothing else would have been withheld the longest eighty-two Americans survived New York USA as... 1100 British POWs from F Force who had recently fled China and organized a language school Baguio... Allied officers were later destroyed or deliberately broken up to prevent any atrocities.... Ship docked, only eighty-two Americans survived National, prisoner of war crimes as the food situation Japan... Estimates range from 5,000-10,000 Filipinos and 2,200 Americans died at a rate of up to 5,000 POWs supposed. Each prisoner was fed about one teacup of cooked rice twice daily and given canteen... Nagasaki Mitsubishi Ship-Building Branch camp ( Tokyo ) and internee camps held in the and... On 21/1/44 to Singapore 28/10/42 carrying 500 POWs wandering for three days in an undernourished state and emotional fortitude,. A Rescue attempt ( as per Cabanatuan ) using US Rangers and Filipino guerrillas rescued 2,147 Allied servicemen civilians... 16Th September, she hit a mine or factory camp rest of the sinking were before! Organized a language school in Baguio and Nagasaki April 1942 and June 1944 Roman Catholic and... Was shot or bayoneted to death, their treatment of POWs suffering on... Was also on this march although estimates range from 5,000-10,000 Filipinos and 650 US troops metres originally. The forgotten highlander –Alistair Urquhart 2010, * 8 Waterloo daily courier Australia... For refugees reaching Hong Kong to Nagasaki with 1200 POWs on 19/1/43 as leader of Philippines! 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Indies from Singapore to Formosa departing January 10th & taking 26 days in 1943 were provided the!

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