The Bill of Rights to the US Constitution, for example, offers US citizens the “right” to freely exercise their religion, be able to speak their mind, while also being able to peaceable assemble. It can add and subtract, and compare sums one to another, and thereby endows us with the capacity to formulate the best means to whatever ends we might happen to have. Modern patriarchy is characterized by a contractual relationship between men, and part of that contract involves power over women. So, government gets established, through a contract, which purports to guarantee equality and protection for all, even though its true purpose is to fossilize the very inequalities that private property has produced. Humans are essentially free, and were free in the State of Nature, but the ‘progress’ of civilization has substituted subservience to others for that freedom, through dependence, economic and social inequalities, and the extent to which we judge ourselves through comparisons with others. We, including all of our actions and choices, are then, according to this view, as explainable in terms of universal laws of nature as are the motions of heavenly bodies. To take into account their utilities is to consider how they will fare as a result of your action and to allow that to affect your own actions. All these examples demonstrate that contract is the means by which women are dominated and controlled. That is why the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution are called the “Bill of Rights” and not the “Bill of Freedoms.”. Christine Di Stefano, in her 1991 book Configurations of Masculinity, shows that a number of historically important modern philosophers can be understood to develop their theories from within the perspective of masculinity, as conceived of in the modern period. 124) is the preservation of their wealth, and preserving their lives, liberty, and well-being in general, Locke can easily imagine the conditions under which the compact with government is destroyed, and men are justified in resisting the authority of a civil government, such as a King. Rather, the general will depends on the coming together periodically of the entire democratic body, each and every citizen, to decide collectively, and with at least near unanimity, how to live together, i.e., what laws to enact. Thomas Hobbes concept of the social contract is the enduring contribution to legal and political philosophy. It is a place where self-interest is present because there is an absence of any rights. Being reasonable, and recognizing the rationality of this basic precept of reason, men can be expected to construct a Social Contract that will afford them a life other than that available to them in the State of Nature. Others of his works are also important inunderstanding his political philosophy, especially his history of theEnglish Civil War, Behemoth (publis… John Locke did not believe that human nature is as cruel as Hobbes … One joins such a body, either from its beginnings, or after it has already been established by others, only by explicit consent. And these other actions are themselves caused by the interaction of our bodies with other bodies, human or otherwise, which create in us certain chains of causes and effects, and which eventually give rise to the human behavior that we can plainly observe. Might never makes right, despite how often it pretends that it can. This prevents social contracts from being implemented, which makes it impossible to form a society. Carole Pateman’s 1988 book, The Sexual Contract, argues that lying beneath the myth of the idealized contract, as described by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, is a more fundamental contract concerning men’s relationship to women. This does not mean, however, that it is a state of license: one is not free to do anything at all one pleases, or even anything that one judges to be in one’s interest. Hobbes’ political theory is best understood if taken in two parts: his theory of human motivation, Psychological Egoism, and his theory of the social contract, founded on the hypothetical State of Nature. So, such behaviors as walking, talking, and the like are themselves produced by other actions inside of us. The State of Nature was completely intolerable, and so rational men would be willing to submit themselves even to absolute authority in order to escape it. Since the sovereign is invested with the authority and power to mete out punishments for breaches of the contract which are worse than not being able to act as one pleases, men have good, albeit self-interested, reason to adjust themselves to the artifice of morality in general, and justice in particular. Prior to the establishment of the basic social contract, according to which men agree to live together and the contract to embody a Sovereign with absolute authority, nothing is immoral or unjust – anything goes. He has supported the absolute powers of King on account of conviction and not for money. He does this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. He argues, radically for his times, that political authority and obligation are based on the individual self-interests of members of society who are understood to be equal to one another, with no single individual invested with any essential authority to rule over the rest, while at the same time maintaining the conservative position that the monarch, which he called the Sovereign, must be ceded absolute authority if society is to survive. Thomas Hobbes was the first person to come up with the idea of a social contract in his text, Leviathan. Inthe traditional contract theories of Hobbes and Locke, the contractwas about the terms of political association. After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known proponents of this enormously influential theory, which has been one of the most dominant theories within moral and political theory throughout the history of the modern West. A basic introduction, criticisms, and discussion questions. To take into account the others’ strategies is to act in accordance with how you expect the others will act. Contract theory represents itself as being opposed to patriarchy and patriarchal right. The method of the original position supports this second principle, referred to as the Difference Principle, because when we are behind the veil of ignorance, and therefore do not know what our situation in society will be once the veil of ignorance is lifted, we will only accept principles that will be to our advantage even if we end up in the least advantaged position in society. The most classical representatives of this school of thought which will be talked about according to existence are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and J.J.Rousseau. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1778, lived and wrote during what was arguably the headiest period in the intellectual history of modern France–the Enlightenment. This contract is constituted by two distinguishable contracts. The second treatise contains Locke’s own constructive view of the aims and justification for civil government, and is titled “An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of Civil Government”. A ruler or authoritarian group would be required to oversee that agreement so the ceded rights were not used. From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for why we ought to be willing to submit ourselves to political authority. It could not. ) As such, it also calls into question the supposed universality of the liberal individual who is the agent of contract theory. This racial contract is to some extent a meta-contract, which determines the bounds of personhood and parameters of inclusion and exclusion in all the other contracts that come after it. You work together as a neighborhood to protect the homes of one another. This paper provides a small summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. When the executive power of a government devolves into tyranny, such as by dissolving the legislature and therefore denying the people the ability to make laws for their own preservation, then the resulting tyrant puts himself into a State of Nature, and specifically into a state of war with the people, and they then have the same right to self-defense as they had before making a compact to establish society in the first place. In other words, they didn’t farm it, so they had no legitimate claim to it, and others could therefore justifiably appropriate it.) Rights and freedoms are often used interchangeably. According to Gauthier, rationality is a force strong enough to give persons internal reasons to cooperate. Hobbes represents a compromise between these two factions. And, having made an agreement that is itself just, Socrates asserts that he must keep to this agreement that he has made and obey the Laws, in this case, by staying and accepting the death penalty. Imagine what that sort of leadership could do if it was on a global scale. Given that the end of “men’s uniting into common-wealths”( par. Patriotism reflects a desire to protect one’s national group. He wrote his book Leviathan to justify it in 1665. Another leading writer was Jean Jacques Rousseau, his fame owing a lot to do with the French Revolution and subsequ… This ‘original pact’ is made by brothers, literally or metaphorically, who, after overthrowing the rule of the father, then agree to share their domination of the women who were previously under the exclusive control of one man, the father. It is the position from which we can discover the nature of justice and what it requires of us as individual persons and of the social institutions through which we will live together cooperatively. As the overall population increased, the means by which people could satisfy their needs had to change. And if they both cooperate with police by informing on each other, then the police will have enough to send each to prison for five years. We continue to believe, according to Mills, in the myths that social contract theory tells us – that everyone is equal, that all will be treated the same before the law, that the Founding Fathers were committed to equality and freedom for all persons, etc. The Scientific Revolution, with its important new discoveries that the universe could be both described and predicted in accordance with universal laws of nature, greatly influenced Hobbes. In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Citizens, once they have grown up, and have seen how the city conducts itself, can choose whether to leave, taking their property with them, or stay. Each man therefore gives over the power to protect himself and punish transgressors of the Law of Nature to the government that he has created through the compact. Property plays an essential role in Locke’s argument for civil government and the contract that establishes it. So, for example, when one tills a piece of land in nature, and makes it into a piece of farmland, which produces food, then one has a claim to own that piece of land and the food produced upon it. Freedoms are an absence of coercion, constraint, or necessity in a choice or an action. So, just as individual wills are directed towards individual interests, the general will, once formed, is directed towards the common good, understood and agreed to collectively. In particular, it fails to adequately represent children and those who provide them with the care they require, who have historically been women. Each of these contracts is concerned with men’s control of women, or a particular man’s control of a particular woman generalized. So, only if a rising tide truly does carry all boats upward, can economic inequalities be allowed for in a just society. As such they are accorded the right to enter into the social contract, and into particular legal contracts. Man in the state of nature was in perpetual conflict as neighbours on account of their own selfish nature. He believed that all humans had equal ability to kill one and other creating a constant state of insecurity. So, no matter what she does, I should confess.” The problem is that when each reason this way, they each confess, and each goes to prison for five years. A person can do whatever they want, whenever they want, and the only way to stop them is to exercise your freedoms before they do. We should understand ourselves as individual Robinson Crusoes, each living on our own island, lucky or unlucky in terms of our talents and the natural provisions of our islands, but able to enter into negotiations and deals with one another to trade goods and services with one another. The second principle states that while social and economic inequalities can be just, they must be available to everyone equally (that is, no one is to be on principle denied access to greater economic advantage) and such inequalities must be to the advantage of everyone. In that book, he makes a strong argument that Hobbes was right: we can understand both politics and morality as founded upon an agreement between exclusively self-interested yet rational persons. As time passed, however, humanity faced certain changes. Importantly, however, this relationship between citizens and the Laws of the city are not coerced. The change from “classical patriarchalism” (24) to modern patriarchy is a shift, then, in who has power over women. In 1972, the publication of John Rawls‘ extremely influential A Theory of Justice brought moral and political philosophy back from what had been a long hiatus of philosophical consideration. Prostitution is a case in point of Pateman’s claim that modern patriarchy requires equal access by men to women, in particular sexual access, access to their bodies. (ll112) Hobbes believed that in the absence of a state, human beings would react to each other with great savagery. One of the very purposes of social contract theory, then, is to keep hidden from view the true political reality – some persons will be accorded the rights and freedoms of full persons, and the rest will be treated as sub-persons. The State of Nature : Principal works Leviathan (1651) : Man egoistic moved by fear, power glory political equality of all no question of right or wrong. In his later statement of hisview, Rawls took the object of agreement to be principles of justiceto regulate “the basic structure:” For Rawls, as for most c… We have seen this occur multiple times at a national level in the 20th century, from the atrocities of the Third Reich to the totalitarian dictatorship of Pol Pot. In doing so, Hobbes proposes, humans would be able to focus on other aspects of life instead of living in perpetual warfare. The distinction between history and justification, between the factual situation of mankind and how it ought to live together, is of the utmost importance to Rousseau. The state is the morally and politically most fundamental entity, and as such deserves our highest allegiance and deepest respect. The Social Contract Theory has been espoused by many writers from Plato in Crito to modern day writers such as Ayn Rand and John Rawls. Being unable to commit injustice with impunity (as those who wear the ring of Gyges would), and fearing becoming victims themselves, men decide that it is in their interests to submit themselves to the convention of justice. 1993. So in the end, although Plato is perhaps the first philosopher to offer a representation of the argument at the heart of social contract theory, Socrates ultimately rejects the idea that social contract is the original source of justice. Rationality is purely instrumental. The theory of social contract is the most fundamental idea behind a Democracy. Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were 17th and 18th century scholars with comparable yet differing hypotheses about human nature. Hobbes suggests in his publication entitled Leviathan that social contracts are required for a society to exist. Given Hobbes’ reasonable assumption that most people want first and foremost to avoid their own deaths, he concludes that the State of Nature is the worst possible situation in which men can find themselves. Thomas Hobbes suggests that the only way to truly remove the natural impulse to create war is to eliminate the borders that surround every individual or group. In particular, he appeals to the model of the Prisoner’s Dilemma to show that self-interest can be consistent with acting cooperatively. Concisely, Hobbes’s social contract is a method of trading liberty for safety. Rights ensure specific freedoms that are protected by a social contract. So, race is not just a social construct, as others have argued, it is more especially a political construct, created to serve a particular political end, and the political purposes of a specific group. Similarly, Annette Baier argues that Gauthier’s conception of the liberal individual who enters into the social contract as a means by which to maximize his own individually considered interests is gendered in that it does not take seriously the position of either children or the women who most usually are responsible for caring for those children. So, the State of Nature is a state of liberty where persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from interference, and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. This life led to the state of nature ensued not only one of a … The social contract theory in particular was an attempt to justify authority and what limits it should have in connection with man’s moral nature. 1991. This is the naturalized social contract, which Rousseau views as responsible for the conflict and competition from which modern society suffers. In particular, feminists and race-conscious philosophers have argued that social contract theory is at least an incomplete picture of our moral and political lives, and may in fact camouflage some of the ways in which the contract is itself parasitical upon the subjugations of classes of persons. Thomas Hobbes’ initially published the social contract as a legal theory, written in the Leviathan, as a premise for the moral obligation of political conduct. Given the pervasive influence of contract theory on social, political, and moral philosophy, then, it is not surprising that feminists should have a great deal to say about whether contract theory is adequate or appropriate from the point of view of taking women seriously. Moreover, these simple, morally pure persons were naturally endowed with the capacity for pity, and therefore were not inclined to bring harm to one another. Yet even then, the social contract theory has limits. Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679, lived during the most crucial period of early modern England's history: the English Civil War, waged from 1642-1648. The first principle states that each person in a society is to have as much basic liberty as possible, as long as everyone is granted the same liberties. (Could the present-day U.S. satisfy Rousseau’s conception of democracy? The Liberal Individual, the contractor, is represented by the Hobbesian man, Locke’s proprietor, Rousseau’s “Noble Savage,” Rawls’s person in the original position, and Gauthier’s Robinson Crusoe. After these contracts are established, however, then society becomes possible, and people can be expected to keep their promises, cooperate with one another, and so on. (Rousseau had previously won the same essay contest with an earlier essay, commonly referred to as the First Discourse.) Instead of having individuals looking out for themselves, the social contracts would create state systems that were now anarchic. In other words, we cannot decide to forgo some of our civil liberties in favor of greater economic advantage. Most importantly however, according to Rousseau, was the invention of private property, which constituted the pivotal moment in humanity’s evolution out of a simple, pure state into one characterized by greed, competition, vanity, inequality, and vice. When humanity is given freedom, it means there are no constraints. Just men know this and act accordingly. Developed in 1651, the Thomas Hobbes social contract theory that looks to address the origin of society. Both SMs and CMs are exclusively self-interested and rational, but they differ with regard to whether they take into account only strategies, or both the strategies and utilities, of whose with whom they interact. It is the state of perpetual and unavoidable war. It simply seeks out a definition and purpose for why humanity is willing to cede certain freedoms to create governing states. “Morals by agreement” are therefore created out of the rationality of exclusively self-interested agents. This prevents social contracts from being implemented, which makes it impossible to form a society. Many philosophers have argued, however, that when we look more closely at the characteristics of the liberal individual, what we find is not a representation of universal humanity, but a historically located, specific type of person. These two principles determine the distribution of both civil liberties and social and economic goods. 1988. The enslavement of millions of Africans and the appropriation of the Americas from those who inhabited them, are examples of this racial contract at work in history (such as Locke’s claim that Native Americans did not own the land they lived on because they did not farm it and therefore did not own it). 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