Total REMS time, REMS episode duration, and REM episode number of THM were similar to those of olmesartan-administered PAH mice (Figure 7C, D, and E). The day of vaginal plug detected was designated pregnant day 0. Since THM and olmesartan-administered PAH mice showed similar levels of hypertension, increased blood pressure may result in decreased REMS time, although further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanistic link between hypertension and REMS regulation. EEG and EMG during pregnancy in wild-type and PAH mice. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. Bokil H, Andrews P, Kulkarni JE, Mehta S, Mitra PP. Each electrode has four electrode pins and two wires. The effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia in cardiovascular gene expression is modulated by age in a mice model of sleep apnea. It might seem obvious, but like humans, only a female hamster can become pregnant. Thus, an increased number of REMS episodes contributes to the increased total REMS time of olmesartan-administered PAH mice. The data are presented as the group mean ± SEM. females can become pregnant within a day of giving birth (postpartum estrus) ... and phenotypes that affect pup development, nursing behavior, aggression, and fertility. Mom and You. PAH mice exhibited a general slowing of EEG during late pregnancy and subsequently returned to apparently normal sleep/wakefulness after delivery. At 8–12 weeks of age (19–23 g), female wild-type, THM, and PAH mice were anesthetized using isoflurane (3%–4% for induction and 1%–2% for maintenance). International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. I have a fancy mouse, Hilda, who is currently pregnant. Like a typical human teenager, mice are undeniably nocturnal and voraciously hungry. There have been several reports on increased REMS by prolactin [52], but peptide hormones may be less permeable to the brain and less influential on brain functions compared with gonadal steroid hormones. PAH mice in late pregnancy continuously exhibited abnormal EEG and EMG with increased slower activity in EEG and lower variability in EMG during wakefulness, and lower amplitude EEG and continuous EMG activities during NREMS (Figure 1C). We also observed that half of the PAH mice showed spike-and-wave discharges during late pregnancy, based on EEG or EMG recording supplemented with video recording. Hope you enjoy! The wake episode duration before pregnancy was significantly longer than that during mid, late, and after pregnancy (F = 7.429, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2B). Since Evans blue leakages were generally very light without an apparent boundary, we counted the number of dye leakages from the brain surface, which provided more reliable and reproducible evaluations than on brain slices. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Five THM and eight wild-type mice. Habits of Mice | Mice Behavior. The same is true of laboratory mice. Although various kinds of preeclampsia model mice, including PAH mice, have been reported, none of them fully reproduce human preeclampsia in terms of pathogenesis, symptoms, and responses to pharmacological intervention. Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd ed. However, postpartum mice showed significantly longer total wake time during the light phase than before pregnancy (F = 3.271, df = 4, p = .025; Figure 2A). And if an opening is not big enough to squeeze through, the mouse can gnaw it until it is big enough. Despite the broad use of mice for preclinical studies, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on sleep/wakefulness during pregnancy in mice. (A–C) Total time spent in wake (A), wake episode duration (B), and wake episode number (C) of THM and wild-type mice. PAH mice showed abnormal sleep/wakefulness frequently accompanied by spike-wave discharges during late pregnancy, which was alleviated by the administration of olmesartan, implicating PAH mice as an animal model of eclampsia. This was not an industry-supported study. That’s where the similarities between the lovable adolescent and the less-than-adorable house mouse end. Although women with preeclampsia have a 3.7-fold increased risk of death compared with pregnant women without preeclampsia, women with eclampsia have a 42-fold increase [24]. (C) Power density during REMS before, during early and mid-pregnancy, and postpartum. (G–I) Total time spent in REM sleep (REMS) (G), REMS episode duration (H), and REMS episode number (I) before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum in PAH mice. They can stand on the hind legs, as well, and are supported by the tail, which also provides balance while in motion. TCM use in pregnant women and nursing mothers: A study from Turkey. Since the systolic blood pressure of THM is similar to that of olmesartan-administered PAH mice, the sleep/wake behaviors of these mice allow us to examine how mild-to-moderate hypertension affects sleep. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation in patients without hypertension prior to pregnancy [19–22]. Maternal interactions have implications in the physiological, psychological, and social development or mice and some of these effects remain into adulthood. Sleep/wake behaviors during the course of pregnancy in PAH mice, except for during late pregnancy. Reference: Nagy A, Gertsenstein M, Vintersten K and Behringer R. 2003. Part II. Postpartum PAH mice showed a longer total REMS time, suggesting that the homeostatic mechanism may compensate for the diminished total REMS during late pregnancy. For REMS, the power density during mid pregnancy was lower at 6 Hz (F = 10.101, df = 3, p = .001) and 7 Hz (F = 23.156, df = 3, p < .0001), and higher at 9 Hz (F = 14.724, df = 3, p < .0001) and 10 Hz (F = 9.019, df = 3, p = .002 for 10 Hz) compared with that before pregnancy (Figure 6C). Youssef AM, Hamidian Jahromi A, Vijay CG, Granger DN, Alexander JS. Does Investing in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods Improve Sleep? This study also proposes that PAH mice may be an animal model of eclampsia. XXIII. The power density of PAH mice did not exhibit any significant difference during NREMS (Figure 6B). (D) NREMS δ density before, during, and after pregnancy. The total wake time was similar among before, early, mid, and after pregnancy (Figure 5A). (D) Representative daily EEG spectrogram during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum in a PAH mouse. To evaluate the validity of PAH mice as a model of eclampsia, further studies using magnesium sulfate, the most potent anticonvulsant for eclampsia patients [22], may be necessary. PAH mice showed normal REMS characterized by θ wave and muscle atonia during late pregnancy, but the total REMS time drastically decreased compared with PAH mice during mid pregnancy and pregnant wild-type mice. (D–F) Total time spent in NREM sleep (NREMS) (D), NREMS episode duration (E), and NREMS episode number (F). Gabriel Goh 26,679 views. Maternal behavior is elicited through a combination of hormonal factors and external stimuli from the pups. (B) Representative daily EEG spectrogram during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum in a wild-type mouse. Note: Not all females will plug and not all plugged females will become pregnant; success rate varies by strain, male’s experience, conditions, etc. It is very common for the female mouse to have her smaller territory inside of the males larger territory. The total NREMS time during the light phase was similar to that before, during, and after pregnancy (Figure 2D). Changes in types of behaviour and how long mice spend doing particular behaviours can indicate that a mouse is in pain, or distress, or is suffering. Similarly, the most commonly observed EEG abnormality in human eclampsia is generalized or focal slowing of EEG [28, 58, 59], and this abnormal EEG normalizes after the release from hypertension [59]. The male mouse has a larger territory than a female mouse. Furthermore, we cannot exclude the possibility that humoral factors are involved in the altered sleep/wakefulness of PAH mice independently of high blood pressure. The EEG spectrum analysis of REMS showed pregnancy-induced changes at 6 and 7 Hz from the early stages of pregnancy, although the physiological significance of this finding is not clear. Unfortunately, if you got a pregnant mouse from the pet store she may be quite young and may not have the best mothering abilities. Total REMS time was not significantly changed before, during, and after pregnancy (Figure 2G). We also examined the sleep/wake behaviors of PAH mice and nonpregnant female THM. Altered REMS, independent of NREMS changes, supports the idea that the regulatory system for REMS functions differently from that for NREMS [44]. I took her to the vet a couple of days ago and they said she looked healthy (that was when we found out she was pregnant.) Murata K, Baasanjav A, Kwon C, Hashimoto M, Ishida J, Fukamizu A. Manfredi M, Beltramello A, Bongiovanni LG, Polo A, Pistoia L, Rizzuto N. Camara-Lemarroy CR, Escobedo-Zúñiga N, Villarreal-Garza E, García-Valadez E, Góngora-Rivera F, Villarreal-Velázquez HJ. Eclampsia is a severe phase of preeclampsia with the occurrence of convulsions and/or disturbed consciousness [20, 23]. Thus, only when human renin exits, human angiotensinogen is processed into angiotensin I. The EEG spectral analysis of the wake state revealed that the power density at 4 and 5 Hz during late pregnancy was higher than that before pregnancy (F = 7.964, df = 4, p < .0001 for 4 Hz; F = 10.754, df = 4, p <.0001 for 5 Hz), whereas the power density at 10 and 11 Hz during late pregnancy was lower than that before pregnancy (F = 12.378, df = 4, p < .0001, for 10 Hz; F = 12.418, df = 4, p < .0001 for 11 Hz; Figure 3A). The total δ density of postpartum PAH mice was reduced to a level similar to that of PAH mice in mid pregnancy (Figure 4A). The male if present, may also participate in caring for pups (Weber & Olsson, 2008). A few months ago I bought a pregnant mouse, she had 9 beautiful babies, but I kept the really cute ones and I left them with mom longer than I should've, my mistake.. 2 male babies were left with mom for 6 weeks or so and then I realized they can inbreed so I immediately separated them and now the mother seems to be getting round again, I weighed her on the kitchen … (D–F) Total time spent in NREMS (D), NREMS episode duration (E), and NREMS episode number (F) before, during, and after pregnancy. 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Tsukuba hypertensive mice showed a normal time spent in wakefulness and NREM sleep and a decreased total REM sleep time. Sleep/wake behaviors during the course of pregnancy in wild-type mice. 2. (G–I) Total time spent in REMS (G), REMS episode duration (H), and REMS episode number (I) before, during, and after pregnancy. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM. This work was supported by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative from MEXT (to MY), JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number 17H06095 to MY and HF; 16K15187 to HF; 26507003 to CM and HF; 15K18966), MEXT KAKENHI (Grant Number 15H05935 to MY and HF), Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST program) from JSPS (to MY), Research grant from Uehara Memorial Foundation research grant (to MY), and Research grant from Takeda Science Foundation research grant (to MY). Did you find this useful? To average the possible variability in sleep during the estrous cycle, we analyzed for 4 consecutive days to assess sleep/wake behaviors before pregnancy. After recording, the female mice were housed with a male mouse. This dosage of olmesartan decreases the systolic blood pressure of PAH mice to approximately 120 mm Hg [26, 27]. de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, Wright JW, Unger T. Saito T, Ishida J, Takimoto-Ohnishi Eet al. (B) δ-Densities of all epochs of nonpregnant PAH (normotensive) mice (n = 6), PAH mice (n = 6), and olmesartan-administered PAH mice (n = 5) during late pregnancy. As a normotensive control, we used pregnant human angiotensinogen transgenic mice mated with male human angiotensin transgenic mice. Don't feel the rat's uterine area to try to determine whether it's pregnant by movement, as even the most careful touch could damage the fragile fetuses if the rat is, indeed, pregnant. In summary, the present study revealed a similarity in the sleep changes during pregnancy between humans and mice [6, 7], which provides a basis for future studies on sleep regulation in animal models for human diseases during pregnancy. A water gel pack (Napa Nector, 8 oz., System Engineering Lab Group Inc.) was used for a water source because this pack allows both pregnant wild-type and PAH mice to intake water easily. Continued progress in genetic engineering, including genome editing, has provided rapid progress in the genetics of sleep [11]. Look for hair loss around nipples, nest-building behaviors, or an enlarged … Like many pregnant women, Leigh Llemit didn't have appetite on her first 2 months of pregnancy, but turned into a voracious eater once past that stage. We observed multiple and very light Evans blue leakages ranging in diameter from less than 0.4 mm to larger than 2 mm in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum in all PAH mice as reported in acute hypertensive rats [32], but did not find any leakage in normotensive control mice during late pregnancy (Figure 4E). n = 6. (A–C) Total time spent in wake (A), wake episode duration (B), and wake episode number (C) before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum in PAH mice. Hi everyone! (G–I) Total time spent in REM sleep (REMS) (G), REMS episode duration (H), and REMS episode number (I). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. (A) δ-Densities of all epochs during mid, late, and after pregnancy. Hormonal changes underlie the first component to appear in the pregnant mouse female, nest building; however the sound of pups can also induce nest … (A) Representative daily EEG spectrogram during late pregnancy in a PAH mouse that was administered olmesartan. https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.5/712.919.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/maternal-video.mp4. After delivery, blood pressure started to decrease and returned to 100–110 mm Hg by the third day after delivery [9, 25]. Mice also can jump 13 inches high and can run along wires, cables, and ropes. All PAH mice exhibited disruption of the blood–brain barrier, and half of the PAH mice showed spike-and-wave discharges. Brain circulation has an autoregulatory mechanism to maintain stable cerebral blood flow between mean arterial pressures of 60 and 120 mm Hg [39]. The pregnant mouse uterus undergoes dynamic changes over the course of gestation to support development of the conceptus. Interestingly, the REMS time of THM was similar to that of olmesartan-administered PAH mice. During the dark phase, the duration of the NREMS episode during late pregnancy was significantly shorter than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 3.456, df = 4, p = .020; Figure 2E). Aggressive behavior seems to be related to gestation in the female mouse. In humans and other mammals, sleep is altered during pregnancy. However in captivity, it is considered a maladaptive behavior. Within the male territory, there maybe just one female or many females with their own area. A mouse can slip through holes and gaps as small as 1/4 inch, or roughly the size of a pencil. Another line of hypertension model mice, called Tsukuba hypertensive mice (THM), carries both human renin and human angiotensinogen transgenes and suffers from moderate and chronic hypertension, 20–30 mm Hg higher than that of wild-type mice [33, 34]. However, behavior of the offspring was altered. During previous experiments pregnant mice were presented daily with an intruder, alternately male and female. We also suggest that PAH mice may be a useful model for the development of therapeutic intervention for eclampsia. Sleep/wakefulness during late pregnancy was also characterized by frequent switches between wakefulness and NREMS, resulting in an increased episode number and short episode duration of both wakefulness and NREMS during both the light and dark phases. Nishina H, Honda K, Okai T, Kozuma S, Inoué S, Taketani Y. Tsuneoka Y, Yoshida S, Takase K, Oda S, Kuroda M, Funato H. Lancel M, Faulhaber J, Holsboer F, Rupprecht R. McCarthy FP, Kingdom JC, Kenny LC, Walsh SK. Pregnancy palpation is most readily carried out on older, multiparous females who have looser skin and are more accustomed to being handled. (D) NREMS δ density before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum. One-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. 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